This image is derived from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2075523/figure/F1/. Copyright © 2007 Gorry et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • Targeted approach, focused responses
    • Substantially reduced risk vis-à-vis other modalities
  • Successful recombinant subunit vaccines elicit the highest Ab responses
    • Shingrix vs. Zostavax
    • Gardasil
    • HBsAg (Recombivax, Engerix, Heplisav)
    • HAV (Vaqta, Havrix)
  • Antibodies recognize 3-D shapes/surfaces
    • Vaccines need to present surface proteins in the same 3-D shape as present on the surface of the pathogen
    • Calder’s focus: spring-loaded and metastable viral fusion proteins: best viral vaccine targets
    • Conformational stabilization needed